Several common and important diseases can affect the respiratory system (air passages, lungs, air sacs) of poultry. Diseases of the respiratory tract account for a significant percentage of the overall disease incidence in poultry. Often, a respiratory disease observed in a flock will be part of a multi systemic disease whereby the total impact is defined by a variety of pathogens, environmental factors and the immune status of the animal. Modern intensive poultry production is susceptible to high economic losses from disease outbreaks due to the high concentration and genetic uniformity of animals present. Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, and avian influenza are three poultry diseases of high economic and/or human safety concern.
Factors that influence the development of respiratory diseases
- The animal: age, species and genetics, all play a major role determining how sensitive or resistant the animal may be towards the pathogen.
- The environment: environmental temperature, dust, gases, humidity, poor ventilation, play also a major role on the occurrence of respiratory irritations. Physical vectors such as rats, insects and wild birds can bring in pathogens, whereas stress reduces the immunity of the animals. In addition, poor management practices can also influence respiratory diseases, including visitors, number and mixing of animals.
- The pathogen itself: respiratory diseases can be caused by bacteria (e.g. pathogenic E. coli), viruses (e.g. pneumovirus) and fungi (e.g. Aspergilosis). Also mycoplasma is responsible for a broad range of infections. They have as well virus as bacterial properties. Seldom a respiratory disease is associated with only one pathogen. In the majority of the cases, both primary and secondary infections are seen. Secondary (bacterial) infections often lead to high mortality.
- Housing density: more intensive production is responsible for the increase in respiratory problems.
- Ammonia: ammonia and ammonia gasses - which are always present in poultry houses - are irritant and corrosive, and may be harmful by all routes of exposure. Acute oral exposure rapidly results in pain, excessive salivation and burn to the mouth, throat and esophagus. Acute inhalation may initially cause upper respiratory tract irritation. Substantial exposures can cause burns in the oral cavity, nasopharynx, larynx and trachea, together with airway obstruction, respiratory distress and bronchiolar and alveolar oedema.
Consequences of respiratory infections
- Reduced growth performance, up to 40%
- Reduced immunity
- Incomplete recovery, tissue can be severely damaged resulting in more sensitive animal for the rest of the production period
Aflorin P L
Essential oils are mixtures of compounds characterized by their capacity to generate flavour or aroma, generally obtained from spices, aromatic herbs, fruits, and flowers. Terpenoids are the most abundant compounds in essential oils and are present either as hemiterpenes, monoterpenes and sesquiterpens or as their derivatives.
Aflorin PL consists of menthol, eucalyptus and plant sterols saponin. Thanks to these ingredients Aflorin PL offers a wide range of benefits to the animal:
- Improves respiration and air passage
- Reduces mucus accumulation and improves discharge from the respiratory cavities
- Reduces the negative effects of diseases and improves quick recovery
- Reduces stress and loss of valuable feed intake
- Improves resistance to all respiratory infections
- Reduces the negative effects and stress of live vaccinations
- Improves survivability and reduces mortality
Dosage and application
- Drinking water: at the rate of 200ml/1000l via batch treatment or dosing system
- By coarse spray: 200ml/10l of water, sprayed for 20.000 chicks
- Poultry: use at the rate of 1ml/kg bodyweight (twice a day) for 3 days
- Use after vaccination for 3 days (recommended to withdraw Aflorin® P L 1 day prior or 2 days post live vaccination and to not mix with vaccines)
- Use in case of CRD for 3 days
- Application should be ideally twice daily