In biology, immunity is the state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. It is the capability of the body to resist harmful microbes from entering it. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity.
The intestine is in constant contact with the “outside world” and plays an essential role for the immune system. Novitech MN develops and supports the non-specific immune function specifically at the intestine level.
Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) – Complex carbohydrates that contain cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Mannanoligosaccharide are capable of agglutination of specific gram-negative bacteria by interaction with mannose-sensitive lectins, based on the bacterial surface. MOS offer binding sites to gut pathogen. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins on the surface of bacteria and mediate contact with carbohydrates on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells. This is an essential prerequisite for the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by pathogens and their later translocation of the intestinal wall and enteric
infection. MOS serve as receptor binding sites for certain pathogens. Their adherence to the intestinal wall is thus avoided. Numerous strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella are bound to MOS in vitro. MOS support the recognition of pathogens by cells of the immune system in the intestine, which improve local immunity.
As a result of infection, macrophages play an important role. If bacteria penetrate the intestinal barrier, they are phagocytosed by macrophages and digested via lysosomal enzymes. The secretion of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TNF-a) and inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) are
further effects of the macrophages. Therefore, the activation of the macrophage functions by ß-glucans will increase immune defence.
ß-Glucans – It is assumed that ß-glucans mediate their effects by interaction with receptors on macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells (NK). These interactions induce the macrophage-inflammatory protein-2, NFkB and the neutrophil oxidative burst as well as other antimicrobial functions. The mechanisms behind it are unknown.
These macromolecular structures, usually in the cell wall, are referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Glucans can be recognition molecules for the innate immune system of the host. B-glucan itself can produce broad anti-infective effects and are confirmed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Listeria monocytogenes, Leishmania donovani, influenza virus.
ß-glucans increase the immune response of the macrophages to pathogens where the possibilities of MOS are limited. The intestinal structure and the animal are protected. They show a better growth, overall health and longevity.
Farm animals may face multiple stressors, such as reduced feed intake, toxins, gut dysbiosis etc. These stressors are linked to housing conditions (bedding quality, animal density, draft wind…), feeding (quality, quantity, and changes…), environment (temperature, humidity, pathogen load…) or management (transport, re-grouping…). Often the causative agent for unexpected disease or low production level cannot be determined as the factors interact with each other.
With such uncertain situations, two main targets to support the animals can be identified:
Therefore the most promising option is to go for a “2 in 1” shot by using Novitech MN.
As a result, Novitech MN supports growth performance (feed conversion and weight gain), reduce diarrhoea and allows a better resistance to disease and mycotoxicosis.